Thermal Energy Storage
Thermal energy storage (also called heat storage), is of great importance in terms of regenerative and efficient energy supply, especially for the decarbonisation of industry. The heating and cooling sector accounts for the largest share of final energy consumption in Europe, with a share of about 50 %, ahead of the transport and electricity sectors.
Thermal energy storage can be built in different sizes, ranging from small decentralised systems to large centralised storage facilities.
Thermal energy storage is available both as short-term and seasonal storage and, depending on the design, can absorb low-temperature heat or high-temperature heat and release it again as high-temperature for industrial applications or low-temperature to heat buildings and water.. In addition to storing thermal energy, the most important goal of heat storage systems is to decouple the generation and use of heat over time.
There are three basic systems in which thermal energy storage is used:
The best known is the sensible heat accumulator. This heat accumulator changes its “sensible” temperature during the charging or discharging process. The heat capacity is the most important parameter in sensitive storage materials. Since this type does not undergo any phase transformations, it can be used over a wide temperature range, from room temperature up to 1,300°C in the high temperature range . Kraftblock’s high-temperature storage system is also a sensible storage system.
In addition, thermal energy can be conserved in so-called latent heat storage systems. They do not change their “perceptible” temperature during the charging or discharging process, but the heat storage medium changes its aggregate state. This is usually the transition from solid to liquid (or vice versa). The storage medium can be charged or discharged beyond its latent heat capacity, which only then leads to a temperature increase or decrease.
There is also the variant of thermochemical heat storage. Thermochemical heat stores heat through endothermic reactions and releases it again through exothermic reactions.
Kraftblock’s thermal energy storage units are manufactured as standard storage units in 10 or 20 feet format. The storage units are optimised for the respective application. This means that the insulation is adapted to the temperature level of the application (depending on losses, and storage duration requirements). This means that the maximum capacity of the storage unit is always available for the respective application.